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Monday, April 16, 2012

And Another Step Bites the Dust!

The index for Oakeshott on Rome and America is done (sorry, indentation did not paste in properly):

Abbott, Frank Frost, 107, 109
Abstraction, 8, 44, 45–46, 71
Ackerman, Bruce, 154, 175–77, 178, 179, 180
Adams, John, 145, 154, 167, 182
Alexander, Christopher, 15
Amendments, to U.S. Constitution, 79, 80, 163, 183, 194
American founders, 35–36, 79, 147–61, 194
    Burke and, 159–61
    civil association and, 42–43
    election crisis of 1800 and, 174–80
    English transit and Locke, 147–51
    as Enlightenment rationalists, 137, 152–53, 155, 159, 160, 193
    federalism and, 77–78
    Federalist Papers and, 151–52, 155
    Machiavelli and, 145–46
    'original intent' of, 98, 183
    political thought and, 152–56
    rationalist politics of, 3–4, 5, 71, 143–61, 180
    Roman model and, 5, 100, 136–37, 138, 144, 154, 196
    slavery, women and, 156–57
    Webster and, 158–59
    See also Jefferson, Thomas
Anabaptists, 147
Ancestor worship, in Rome, 105. See also Mos maiorum (way of the ancestors)
Antiochus IV, Selucid ruler, 109–10

Anti-rationalist politics, 25–26
See also Pragmatic politics
Antony, Marc, 131, 132, 134
Archer, J.R., 50, 52, 56
Architecture, tradition in, 14–15
Aristotle, 3, 16, 27, 82
Polybian ideal and, 75, 145, 146–47, 156
on practice vs. theory, 43–45
Association, civil vs. enterprise, 26, 36, 41–43, 101
Attalus III, king of Pergamum, 121
Augustine of Hippo, 140
Augustus and Roman principate, 134–35, 141

Bacon, Francis, 12–14
Bailyn, Bernard, 152, 153, 168, 169–70, 174
Baldwin, Simeon, 156–57
Barber, Benjamin R., 59–60
Barnett, Randy, 94
Bayard, James, 178
Beard, Mary, 123
Bentley, Jon, 18
Boettke, Peter, 187
Bosanquet, Bernard, 46, 54–55
Boucher, David, 45, 111n.2, 196
Britain. See Great Britain
Buchanan, James M., 89
Burger, Warren, 74
Burke, Edmund, 159–61
Burr, Aaron, 137, 176, 177, 178
conspiracy of, 165, 170–72, 179–80
duel with Hamilton, 179
Bush, George W., 2n.1, 179, 184, 195
Buteo, M. Fabius, 108

Caesar, Julius, 128–29, 136–37
assassination of, 131, 132
The Calculus of Consent (Buchanan & Tullock), 89–92
Cannae, Battle of, 108
Capitalism, 33–34
Carthage, wars with Rome, 108, 133
Cato the Younger, 105, 128, 129–30
Causal adequacy, 7, 71
Charles I, King of England, 148, 149
Chase, Samuel, 179, 180
Christianity, Rome and, 140, 141
Cicero, 104, 109, 115, 116, 129, 132
Cinna, 124
Civil association, 26, 36, 41–43, 63, 101
Cohen, G.A., 88–89
Collective action, 91
Collectivism, 37, 38–39, 59–60
Collingwood, R.G., 21, 46, 54
Common good, 38
Common Sense (Paine), 155–56
'The Confusion of Language in Political Thought' (Hayek), 64
Conservatism, 10–12, 64–69, 103
See also Traditionalism
Constitution, U.S., 1, 73, 137, 164, 168, 180–86
amendments to, 79, 163, 179, 183, 194
election crisis of 1800 and, 122, 176–77, 178
Hardin on viability of, 96–98
lessons of the Roman republic and, 100, 123
original intent of, 94, 98, 180, 181
presidential powers in, 178, 182, 184–85, 195
ratification of, 96–97, 182
rationalism in, 74, 76–77, 78, 180–81
as sacred text, 74
strict constructionists and, 6
Constitutionalism, Oakeshott and, 71–99, 148
case for, 80–81
contractarian views of, 84, 85, 89–92, 93, 94, 95–96
Hardin's coordinating devices and, 94–99
natural rights embodied in, 82–85, 96
originalism and, 94, 98
political legitimacy and, 76
Polybian ideal and, 75
Public Choice Theory and, 91–92
Rawl's theory of justice and, 85–89
as sacred text, 73–74
setting constraints, 74
varieties of constitutions, 77–80
Constitution of Liberty (Hayek), 64
Contractarians, 84, 85, 89–92, 93
Hardin and, 94, 95–96
Corey, Elizabeth Campbell, 40
Council of Europe, 88
'Court' vs. 'Country' parties, in England, 150
Crassus, 128–29, 134
Crawford, Michael, 123
Crick, Bernard, 49, 50, 51, 66
The Cult of the Presidency (Healy), 182

Declaration of Independence (United States), 149, 164, 194
De Jasay, Anthony, 92–93, 94
Democracy, nation building and, 190
Descartes, Rene, 12, 14–16, 154, 155
Design patterns, 15
De Tocqueville, Alexis, 156
Deveroux, Daniel T., 44–45
Difference principle, 88–89

Eccleshall, Robert, 9, 57, 132
Election of 1800 (United States), 97, 174–80
Ellis, Joseph J., 164
Elster, Jon, 80, 81
Embargo, U.S. (1808-1809), 163, 165, 172–73
English traditions, 153, 155, 160–61
See also Great Britain
Enlightenment rationalism, 60–63, 186
American founders and, 137, 152–53, 155, 159, 160, 193
See also Rationalism, Oakeshott's critique of
Enterprise association, 26, 36, 41–43, 101
Ethics, 61
The Ethics of Liberty (Rothbard), 82–85
European Union, 72
Everitt, Anthony, 110, 114
Experience and Its Modes (Oakeshott), 29–31
Explanatory adequacy, 7

Fagan, Garrett G., 114, 139
Faith/scepticism dichotomy, 31–37
American founders and, 35–36
utopia thought and, 33, 34, 36
Federalism, 77–78, 181
The Federalist Papers, 151–52, 155
Ferguson, Adam, 159
Finn, John E., 188–89
First Amendment, 183, 194
First Triumvirate (Rome), 128–29
Fletcher, Andrew, 150
Florentine political thinkers, 145–46
Flower, Harriet I., 109
Ford, Ryan, 189–90
Fourth Amendment, 163
France, 168, 169, 172, 195
U.S. embargo against, 163, 173
Franco, Paul, 20, 21, 144–45
Freeden, Michael, 57–58, 132
French Revolution, 164
Friedman, David D., 59

Glorious Revolution of 1688 (England), 150
Gracchi brothers, reforms of, 118–22
Gracchus, Gaius, 122
Gracchus, Tiberius, 114, 119–22, 139
Grandin, Temple, 18
Gray, John, 90, 150–51
Great Britain, 150
American rebels and, 154–55, 160
constitution of, 78–79, 184–85
English traditions, 153, 155, 160–61
Jefferson's embargo against, 163, 165, 172–73
Puritans and civil war in, 147–49
Greek colonies, Rome and, 108–9
Gruen, Erich, 114–15, 128n.1, 129–30

Haddock, Bruce, 51–52, 151–52, 158, 161
Hamilton, Alexander, 137, 155, 179, 181
Hardin, Russell, 94–99
Hayek, F. A., 1, 18n.8, 21n.9, 102, 105, 119
'The Confusion of Language in Political Thought,' 64
Constitution of Liberty, 64
Law, Legislation, and Liberty, 67–68
Oakeshott and, 11, 35, 63–69, 118
The Road to Serfdom, 11, 35, 64, 72n.1
'Why I Am Not a Conservative,' 63–69
Healy, Gene, 182, 184, 185, 185n.2
Hegel, G.W.F., 68
Historical precedent, 103–4
See also Traditionalism
Hobbes, Thomas, 59, 63
Honduras, constitution of, 190–91
Hooker, Richard, 147
Hoppe, Hans-Herman, 85
Horton, John, 33
Human rights, 164–65, 166

Idealization, 8, 45–46, 84, 92, 126
Ideal-type history, of Oakeshott, 36, 135–36, 137
rationalism and, 7–9, 19–20, 71, 193
Ideological politics, 56–63
Barber on, 59–60
Optimates and, 57, 128–29, 130, 132
in Roman revolution, 127–33
Individualism, 38, 39, 59, 63
Inventiveness, 52
Iraqi Constitution, 1–2, 72, 81, 100
Ireland, constitution of, 188–89
Italian Renaissance, 145–46

Jacobs, Jane, 22–24
Jefferson, Thomas, 78, 137, 162–74, 185
Burr conspiracy and, 165, 170–72, 179–80
election crisis (1800) and, 176–77
embargo (1808-1809) and, 163, 165, 172–73
freedom of the press and, 167–68
on government, 181
hypocrisy of, 173–74
Louisiana purchase and, 165, 168–70, 195
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 165–67
as rationalist, 163–65
on slavery, 156, 165–67
Johnston, Zachariah, 157
Judiciary, independence of, 92–93
Justice, 85–89, 91

Keynes, John Maynard, 21n.9, 147
Kirk, Russell, 164
Kukathas, Chandran, 49

Land reforms, in Roman republic, 119–20
Latifundia (estates), 117, 139
Law, Legislation, and Liberty (Hayek), 67–68
Leeson, Peter J., 59
Legislative process, 79, 91
Legitimacy, 76
Lepidus, 131
Levinson, Sanford, 72n.2, 73
Levy, Leonard W., 163, 167–68, 170–73
Liechtenstein, constitution in, 87–88
Ligustinus, Spurius, 117–18
Lintott, Andrew, 103
Livingston, Robert R., 169
Livy, 117–18
Locke, John, 145, 149–50, 157
Louisiana purchase, 165, 168–70, 195

Machiavelli, Niccolo, 145–46
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 17, 43, 52–53, 69, 85, 104–5
Maclay, William, 182
Madison, James, 164, 181, 185
Malone, Dumas, 172
Marius, Gaius, 123–24
Marshall, John, 154, 171, 178
Martin, Luther, 156
McDonald, A.H., 107, 108
McDonald, Forrest, 158
McIntyre, Kenneth B., 9, 10, 63, 130
Mead, Walter, 60–63
Meyer, Frank, 82
Meyers, Steven Lee, 1
Middle Ages, communal world of, 37, 38
Minogue, Kenneth, 66–67, 71
Modern Constitutions (Wheare), 77–81
Monroe, James, 169
Morality and Politics in Modern Europe (Oakeshott), 37–39
Morgenthau, Hans J., 50
Mos maiorum (way of the ancestors), 100, 103, 112, 138, 194
Roman revolution and, 115, 121, 122, 125

Napoleon I (Bonaparte), 169
National legislature, 79, 91
See also Senate, Roman; Senate, U.S.
National planning, 60
Nation building, 2n.1, 189, 190
Natural rights theory, 82–85, 96
The New Atlantis (Bacon), 12–13
New Orleans, 168–69
New York Times, 1
New Zealand, 78
Nomenclatores (campaign workers), 129–30
Northern Ireland, 188–89
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 165–67
Nowrasteh, Alex, 189–90

Oakeshott, Michael
Burke and, 159–61
Experience and Its Modes, 29–31
Hayek and, 11, 35, 63–69
'ideal type' method of, 7–9, 19–20, 36, 71, 135–36, 137, 193
on Locke, 149
on political philosophy, 112n.5
The Politics of Faith and the Politics of Scepticism, 31–37
'Rational Conduct,' 143–44
'Rationalism in Politics,' 2, 12, 25, 48, 67, 71
rejection of ideology by, 56–63, 127–28
on Roman republic, 100–103, 105–6, 138
on Roman revolution, 126, 127, 133–36
'The Voice of Poetry in the Conversation of Mankind,' 62
See also Constitutionalism, Oakeshott and; On Human Conduct (Oakeshott)
Oakeshottian rationalism. See Rationalism, Oakeshott's critique of
Octavian, 131, 132, 133
as Augustus, 134–35, 141
O'Neill, Onora, 45–46, 84, 126
On Human Conduct (Oakeshott), 29, 37, 52, 59, 64
civil vs. enterprise association in, 26, 41–43
theory/practice dichotomy in, 39–41, 50
Optimates, 38, 57, 128–29, 130, 132, 150
Originalism, 94, 98, 180, 181, 183

Paine, Thomas, 155–56
Parental responsibilities, 83–84
Party politics, 175–76
Patricians and plebeians, in Rome, 107
Pavlov, Ivan, 53
Pax deorum (peace of the gods), 103–4, 112
Payne, James L., 190
Pergamum, 121, 133
Pettit, Philip, 6, 81, 193
Pickering, John, 179
Plato, 39–41, 43, 111
Plutarch, on Sulla, 126–27
Pocock, J.G.A., 145, 146
Polanyi, Michael, 18, 53, 61–62, 64
Police brutality, 83
Politics. See Ideological politics; Pragmatic politics; Scepticism, politics of
The Politics of Faith and the Politics of Scepticism (Oakeshott), 31–37
Polybian ideal, 75, 145, 146–47, 156
Polybius, 139
Pompey, 125, 128–29, 130
Popillius, 110
Popper, Karl, 49n.3
Populares, 116
Powell, Benjamin, 189–90
Practical politics. See Pragmatic politics
Practice, science and, 30–31, 43
Practice vs. theory. See Theory/practice dichotomy
Pragmatic politics, 26–28
in Roman republic, 3, 5, 35, 100–112, 142
serious reform and, 55–56
Press, freedom of the, 167–68
Property rights, 83n.7, 84
Public Choice Theory, 91–92
Puritan movement, in England, 147–48, 150

Randolph, John, 179
Raphael, D. D., 48, 52, 113–14, 118
'Rational Conduct' (Oakeshott), 143–44, 151
Rationalism, Oakeshott's critique of, 2–3, 6–7, 98–99
abstraction vs. idealization, 45–46
of American founders, 3–4, 5, 71, 143–61, 180
as apology for Conservatism, 10–12
Aristotle and, 27, 43–45
Bacon and, 12–14
collectivism and, 37, 38–39, 91
constitutionalism and, 74, 76–77, 78
contemporary examples, 4–5
Descartes and, 12, 14–16, 154, 155
Hayek and, 67–69
ideal types, 7–9, 19–20, 71, 193
ills of Roman republic and, 5, 137–41
individualism and, 39
Jefferson and, 163–65, 166, 167, 174
Mead and, 60–63
Oakeshott's definition of, 2–3
practical politics compared, 27, 55–56
Raphael and, 113–14
Rawl's justice theory, 85, 86–88
religious vs. secular, 147–48
scepticism about, 4
social engineering and, 21, 22
Soviet program and, 187
tabula rasa and, 16–17
theory/practice dichotomy and, 16, 17–18, 44
traditionalism and, 21, 25–26, 48–55, 70, 105, 113, 193 (See also Traditionalism)
urban planning and, 22–25
Voegelin and, 111
vs. practical politics, 3
See also Constitutionalism
'Rationalism in Politics' (Oakeshott), 2, 12, 25, 48, 67, 71
Rawls, John, theory of justice, 85–90
"veil of ignorance" and, 85–86, 89, 92
Raynor, Jeremy, 11n.3, 70n.11
Reflective consciousness, 51–55
Representative government, 110–12, 122
The Republic (Plato), 39–40, 43
Richard, Carl, 115, 136–37
The Road to Serfdom (Hayek), 11, 35, 64, 72n.1
Roman republic, 100–112, 153, 196
American founders and, 5, 100, 144, 154, 196
civil vs. enterprise association in, 42–43
'constitution' of, 103, 139
Greek colonies and, 108–9
historical precedent in, 103–4
mos maiorum (way of the ancestors), 100, 103, 112, 115, 194
Oakeshott's writings on, 100–103, 105–6
pragmatic politics in, 3, 5, 35, 100–112, 142
rational design and, 5, 137–41
representative government in, 110–12
responding to change in, 106–10
tradition in, 57, 106
unwritten constitution in, 73, 79, 103
Roman revolution, 113–42
American republic and, 136–37, 138
failure of Gracchi reforms, 118–22
ideology ascendant in, 127–33
landless farmers and, 116–17, 119–20, 123
latifundia and, 117, 139
Marius and, 123–24
Oakeshott's understanding of, 126, 127, 133–36
Optimates and, 128–29, 130, 150
Sulla's dictatorship and, 124–27
terminology used to describe, 114–18
tradition and, 114, 115, 119, 120–21, 122, 125
transition to principate, 134–35
Triumvirates, 128–29, 131–32
Roman Senate. See Senate, Roman
Rothbard, Murray N., 36, 39, 82–85, 96
Rowland, Barbara M., 67
Rule of law, 101

Sacks, Oliver, 18
Sallust, 140
Sandoz, Ellis, 157
Scepticism, politics of
American founders and, 35–36
in Roman republic, 35
utopian thought and, 33, 34, 36
vs. faith, 31–37
Science, practice and, 30–31
Scullard, H.H., 103, 105, 108, 110, 120, 133
on Roman Triumvirate, 128, 129, 131–32
Sebeok, Thomas, 53
Second Amendment, 183
Second Punic War, 108
Second Triumvirate (Rome), 131–32
Secret ballot, in Rome, 109
Self-ownership theory, 149–50
Senate, Roman, 105, 108, 110, 115, 131
land reform and, 120, 121
Optimates in, 128–29
Sulla's dictatorship and, 125
Senate, U.S., 169, 179, 180
Shotter, David, 130
Slavery, 156–57
Jefferson and, 156, 165–67
Smith, R.E., 108, 110, 112, 141
Smith, Steven D., 153–54, 182, 183–84, 186
Snow, Dan, 18
Social being, 51
Social contract, 84, 85–92
Social engineering, 21, 22
Social justice, 85–89, 91
Somalia, customary law in, 189–90
Soviet Union, constitution of, 80, 186–87
Special Powers Act (1922), 188–89
Spitzer, Robert J., 183
Stewart, Roberta, 103–4, 116
Stringham, Edward Peter, 59
'Struggle between the orders,' in Rome, 107
Sulla, dictatorship of, 124–27
Sulpicius, 124

Tacit knowledge, 18–19
Taylor, Charles, 111n.5
Theoretical politics, 27
See also Theory/practice dichotomy
A Theory of Justice (Rawls), 85–89
Theory/practice dichotomy, 16, 17–18, 50, 75
Aristotle on, 43–45
Plato's cave metaphor, 39–41
Tollison, Robert D., 93
Torture, police brutality and, 83
Traditionalism, 21, 25–26, 39, 48–55, 70
as apology for status quo, 48–50
denigrating rational reflection, 51–55
Descartes on, 14–16
Locke on, 149
moderation and, 15–16
Optimates and, 38, 128–29, 130, 132, 150
Roman reliance on, 57, 106, 135
Roman revolution and, 114, 115, 119, 120–21, 122, 125
See also Mos maiorum (way of the ancestors)
Triumvirates, Roman, 128–29, 131–32
Tseng, Roy, 55
Tullock, Gordon, 89–92
Twelfth Amendment, 179

Unitary constitutions, 77
United Kingdom, constitution of, 78–79, 188
See also Great Britain
United States Constitution. See American founders; Constitution, U.S.
Urban planning, 22–25
Utopian thought, 21, 33, 34, 36, 71

Vincent, Andrew, 58
Viroli, Maurizio, 6, 193
Virtu, 121
Voegelin, Eric, 63n.8, 98, 139, 147, 152
on Augustus, 134–35
on English civil war, 148–49
on gnosticism, 33n.4
on Locke, 149
on Roman republic, 104, 110–12, 139, 140–41
theory of representation, 110–12, 122
'The Voice of Poetry in the Conversation of Mankind' (Oakeshott), 62

Watkins, J.W.N., 69n.10
Weber, Max, 7, 9, 71
Webster, Noah, 158–59
Wheare, K.C., 77–81, 188
Wheelan, Joseph, 170, 171–72
'Why I Am Not a Conservative' (Hayek), 64–69
Wilkinson, James, 170, 171
Williams, Bernard, 88
'Will of the powerful,' constraints on, 81
Winch, Peter, 9, 52–54, 132
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 17
Wood, Gordon S., 154–55, 158
Worthington, Glenn, 36n.7
Written constitutions, 71, 76, 96, 98–99, 154
power of, 81
as sine qua non, 100
See also Constitutionalism, Oakeshott and; Constitution, U.S.

Yoo, John, 184, 185
Young, Alfred, 173

Zelaya, Manuel, 190

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